The Eastern Imperial Eagle Population: A Comprehensive Overview


The Eastern Imperial Eagle Population: A Comprehensive Overview

The eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) is a large bird of prey that breeds in southeastern Europe and extensively through West and Central Asia. With a small global population, this species is currently listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List due to continuing declines primarily as a result of habitat loss and degradation, adult mortality through persecution and collision with powerlines, nest robbing, and prey depletion.

The Global Population of the Eastern Imperial Eagle

According to the latest estimates, the global population of the eastern imperial eagle is between 1,300-1,900 breeding pairs in Europe, equating to 2,500-3,800 mature individuals. The population in Asia is not well-studied, and more information is needed to confirm the size and trends of populations in this region.

Region Estimated Breeding Pairs
Europe 1,300-1,900
Asia Unknown

The European population of the eastern imperial eagle is particularly threatened, with the species having nearly vanished from many areas of its former range, such as Hungary and Austria. The only European populations that are increasing are in the Carpathian basin, mainly in the northern mountains of Hungary and the southern region of Slovakia, where the breeding population consists of about 105 pairs. The most western breeding population on the border between Austria and the Czech Republic consists of 15-20 pairs.

Habitat and Feeding Habits

eastern imperial eagle populationImage source: eastern imperial eagle By Koshy Koshy

The eastern imperial eagle is a migratory species, with most populations wintering in northeastern Africa and southern and eastern Asia. It feeds mainly on European hares, European hamsters, and common pheasants, as well as a variety of other birds and mammals.

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Habitat Preferences

  • Prefers open woodland, forest-steppe, and steppe habitats
  • Nests in tall trees or on cliff ledges
  • Requires large, undisturbed areas for breeding and foraging

Feeding Habits

  • Primarily preys on small to medium-sized mammals and birds
  • Opportunistic feeder, also consuming reptiles, amphibians, and carrion
  • Hunts by soaring and swooping down on prey from a perch or in flight

Threats and Conservation Efforts

The eastern imperial eagle is facing a number of threats that have contributed to its decline, including:

  1. Habitat loss and degradation
  2. Adult mortality through persecution and collision with powerlines
  3. Nest robbing
  4. Prey depletion

To address these threats, various conservation efforts have been undertaken, such as:

  • Habitat management and restoration
  • Mitigation of powerline collisions
  • Anti-poaching and nest protection measures
  • Prey population monitoring and management

Additionally, the species is protected under international and national legislation, and several countries have implemented targeted conservation programs to support the recovery of eastern imperial eagle populations.


The eastern imperial eagle is a remarkable raptor species facing significant challenges to its long-term survival. With a small global population and ongoing threats, concerted conservation efforts are crucial to ensuring the species’ recovery and future viability. By understanding the current status and threats facing the eastern imperial eagle, we can work towards developing and implementing effective strategies to protect this iconic bird of prey.